MACADAMIA MOCHA - See Espresso Drink Recipes.
MARACAIBO COFFEE - A class of Venezuelan coffees including several distinguished coffees such as Trujillo, Tachira, and Merida which exhibit classic Venezuelan coffee qualities including a sweet and slightly rich flavor with a balanced acidity.
Maracaibos is the port through which the coffees are shipped and is located in the western part of Venezuela near the Colombian border. Also sometimes considered a Maracaibo coffee is Cúcuta, which is shipped through Maracaibo though it is grown in Colombia.
Both Cucuta and Tachira are compared to Colombian Coffees displaying a medium body, rich acidity and often a fruity quality.
Also see Venezuela Coffee.
MACCHIATO (Espresso Macchiato) - See Espresso Drink Recipes.
MALAWI COFFEE - See Malawi Coffee.
MALTY - A coffee aroma descriptor (aromatic sensation) suggesting a cereal, toast-like, or grain-type aroma and/or flavor (e.g., barley, wheat, corn, freshly baked bread, toast, malt extract).
This malty quality is produced by moderately volatile ketones and aldehydes that create aromatic sensations suggesting toasted grains.
MAM - This is the acronym that stands for Medellin (Medellín), Armenia, and Manizales, which are Colombia's three most distinguished coffees. These three coffees are often marketed together in order to simplify the transfers of large coffee contracts. Also see Colombian Coffee.
MANDHELING COFFEE - See Sumatra Mandheling Coffee.
MANIZALES COFFEE - A Colombian coffee that is one of the principal Milds. Also see Colombian Medellin Supremo Coffee; Colombian Armenia Coffee; Colombian Coffee.
MANUAL ESPRESSO MACHINE - A type of espresso machine (e.g., piston machine or lever machine) that requires the operator (e.g., the barista) to manually provide pressure in order to effect the extraction to brew one or more shots of espresso. Also see Espresso Machines.
MANUAL PISTON ESPRESSO MACHINE (Manual-Piston Espresso Machine; Manual Piston Machine) - A type of piston-driven espresso machine (espresso maker) in which the pulling of the lever by the user (e.g., the barista) directly pushes the water through the roasted, ground coffee to brew the espresso.
A piston-driven espresso machine is powered by the operator (e.g., the barista) pumping a lever which pressurizes the hot water and forces it through coffee grounds to brew the espresso. These lever-style machines are where the term “pulling an espresso shot” came from, because the operator had to pull the long handle.
Also see Spring Piston Espresso Machines; Lever Espresso Machines; Piston-Driven Espresso Machines; Espresso Machines.
MARAGOGYPE COFFEE (Maragogipe Coffee; Elephant Bean Coffee) - A Coffea arabica coffee plant varietal (Coffea arabica var. maragogype) derived from the Typica varietal (Coffea arabica var. typica). The Maragogype varietal, known for its large coffee beans, grows taller than both the Typica and Bourbon varietals and grows best at elevations between 2,000 feet and 2,500 feet above sea level.
The varietal Maragogype was discovered in northeast Brazil near the town of Maragogipe, which is in the state of Bahia. The plant's seeds (coffee beans) are also known as elephant beans, and they are large though relatively porous while the yield of Maragogype is relatively low.
The quality of the brewed coffee made from the Maragogype varietal, known to produce a light, nutty taste, is somewhat distinguished in particular coffee markets. The varietal is now cultivated in various countries including Central America, Peru and Mexico.
MARGEGABIA - Straw mat used to hold the freshly roasted coffee beans during the Ethiopian Coffee Ceremony. Also see Ethiopian Coffee.
MARIGOJIPE COFFEE (Marigogipe Coffee) - A Coffea arabica coffee plant varietal (Coffea arabica var. marigojipe). Marigojipe is a mutation of the Typica varietal and known to produce large coffee beans.
Marigojipe was first discovered in Brazil's Marigojipe region in the state of Bahia. The Marigojipe varietal is now grown throughout Latin America.
MARKET NAME - Coffee that is sold under a name that refers to a general region and not a particular estate or grade.
MATAGALPA - See Nicaragua Matagalpa Coffee.
MATTARI COFFEE (Matari Coffee) - See Mocha Mattari Coffee.
MATURE COFFEE - Coffee beans that have been stored for two to three years in a warehouse in order to increase the coffee's body and lessen its acidity - this is due to enzyme activity causing chemical changes in the coffee beans.
The time of storage of a mature coffee is longer than the storage time of an old crop coffee but not as long as the storage of a vintage coffee (aged coffee).
MAXWELL HOUSE COFFEE - See coffee companies.
MAYAGUEZ COFFEE - A cultivar of Bourbon (Coffea arabica var. bourbon), Coffea arabica var. mayaguez is cultivated in Rwanda. Also see Rwanda Coffee.
MBEYA COFFEE - Grown in southern Tanzania, Mbeya coffee is also known as Pare - both are market names for coffees from this southern region. Also see Tanzania Coffee.
MECHANICAL DEMUCILAGING - The process of using machines to remove the freshly-picked coffee cherry's sticky pulp, or mucilage - this procedure is known as aquapulp and has gradually been replacing the traditional wet processing methods of removing the mucilage through fermentation and washing.
MECHANICAL DRYER (Mechanical Coffee Dryer) - A coffee drying machine that typically uses a large, heated rotating cylinder to dry coffee faster than sun-drying.
The odor taint known as hidey is often attributed to the use of a mechanical dryer during processing of the coffee beans, creating a leather-like tallowy aroma due to excessive heat breaking down fats in the coffee beans.
MEDIUM-BROWN ROAST (Medium Brown Roast) - Also called an American Roast or Standard American Roast, a Medium-Brown Roast is a fairly light roast though not quite as light as a New England Roast (Cinnamon Roast).
A Medium-Brown Roast is used by many major commercial coffee brands (e.g., Maxwell House) on their Robusta coffee. Also see Medium Roast; Roasting Coffee.
MEDELLIN COFFEE (Medellín Coffee) - A Colombian coffee that is one of the principal Milds. Also see Colombian Medellin Supremo Coffee; Colombian Manizales Coffee; Colombian Armenia Coffee; Colombian Coffee.
MEDELLIN SUPREMO COFFEE (Medellín Supremo Coffee) - See Colombian Medellin Supremo Coffee.
MEDICINAL - An undesirable coffee flavor/aroma characteristic (e.g., taste fault) typified by a penetrating sour sensation on the back (posterior) sides of the tongue.
The medicinal quality is characteristic of highly aromatic coffees that produce strong volatiles, and may be reminiscent of hospitals, chemical residues, formaldehyde, etc.
The medicinal quality is created by alkaloids which increase the sourness of the coffee's acids yet do not modulate the coffee's sweetness. Similar but not the same as rioy.
MEDIUM GROWN COFFEE - Denotes a coffee that is grown at elevations between 2,000 feet and 4,000 feet above sea level.
MEDIUM HARD BEANS (MHB) - A grade of coffee beans in Costa Rica's altitude-based coffee grading system. Medium Hard Beans are grown at elevations ranging from 1,600 feet to 3,000 feet above sea level. Also see Strictly Hard Beans; Good Hard Beans; Soft Beans; Costa Rica Coffee.
MEDIUM HIGH ROAST - See Medium Roast.
MEDIUM-DARK ROAST (Medium Dark Roast) - See Medium-Dark Roast.
MEDIUM ROAST - See Medium Roast.
MELLOW - Describes a coffee with a mild and perhaps delicate finish/aftertaste and a primary coffee flavor characteristic/taste sensation that is full yet well-balanced. This mellow coffee quality is created by the coffee's salts combining with sugars to increase the coffee's sweetness.
The mellow quality is characteristic of premium gourmet coffees that lack a significant amount of acidity (e.g., possess a low to medium level of acidity), yet are not flat, and in particular is often found in washed Arabica Coffees grown at elevations below 4,000 feet above sea level (e.g., Hawaii Kona Coffee).
MERIDA COFFEE - See Merida Coffee.
METHYLENE CHLORIDE - A chemical that is able to dissolve and also extract caffeine from green coffee beans, or from water that the coffee beans are soaking in. Methylene Chloride is an organic solvent used in the indirect contact method of coffee decaffeination.
MEXICAN ALTURA COATEPEC COFFEE (Mexico Altura Coatepec Coffee) - See Mexican Altura Coatepec Coffee.
MEXICAN ALTURA HUATUSCO COFFEE (Mexico Altura Huatusco Coffee) - A respected coffee grown in Veracruz State in Mexico. Also see Mexican Coffee.
MEXICAN ALTURA ORIZABA COFFEE (Mexico Altura Orizaba Coffee) - A respected coffee grown in Veracruz State in Mexico. Also see Mexican Coffee.
MEXICAN CAPULIN COFFEE (Mexico Capulin Coffee) - A coffee from Mexico's Nayarit Province. Known for its subtle, smooth taste, Capulin coffee is unwashed (natural), sun-dried, and hand sorted. Also see Mexican Coffee.
MEXICAN CHIAPAS COFFEE (Mexico Chiapas Coffee) - See Mexican Chiapas Coffee.
MEXICAN OAXACA COFFEE (Mexico Oaxaca Coffee) - See Mexican Oaxaca Pluma Coffee.
MEXICAN COFFEE (Mexico Coffee) - See Mexican Coffee.
MHB (Medium Hard Beans) - A grade of coffee beans in Costa Rica's altitude-based coffee grading system. Medium Hard Beans are grown at elevations ranging from 1,600 feet to 3,000 feet above sea level. Also see Strictly Hard Beans; Good Hard Beans; Soft Beans; Costa Rica Coffee.
MH/ML COFFEE BEANS - See Kenya MH/ML Coffee Beans.
MIDDLE EASTERN COFFEE - A coffee brewing method which involves grinding coffee beans to a powder, adding sweetener and spice, and boiling it in water in an ibrik (a brass or copper pot with a long handle).
The fine coffee grinds are served along with the liquid coffee beverage, which is typically poured directly into a tiny demitasse cup. The grinds are then allowed to settle before drinking the coffee. Also called Turkish Coffee, Greek Coffee.
MILD - Describes a coffee with a balanced acidity and sweetness, typically medium-bodied, and with an aftertaste/finish that lacks any bitterness or dryness.
This mild quality is a secondary coffee flavor sensation usually tasted as a sweet tingle just past the tongue tip, and is caused by a high concentration of salts and sugars.
Many high quality Arabica Coffees, such as washed Sumatra Coffee - often exhibit this mild characteristic.
MILDS - Arabica Coffees grown in the western hemisphere are subdivided into the Milds and the Brazils. The principal Milds, which are named after the regions where they are grown, include Armenia, Manizales, and Medellin coffees, all from Colombia.
The principal Brazil Coffees, which are named after the ports where they are shipped from, include Rio, Santos, and Parana (Paraná). Also see Colombian Coffee.
MILK WARMING PITCHER/MILK WARMER - A stainless steel pitcher that typically holds at least 12 ounces of milk and is used (e.g., by a barista) for steaming/aerating milk to create frothed milk and foam for an espresso-based specialty coffee drink (espresso drink).
A milk warming pitcher typically has a pour spout. A milk warming pitcher is also called a steaming pitcher or frothing pitcher. Also see Steaming and Frothing Milk; Foam; Espresso Drink Recipes.
MILLING - This is the last step in the wet processing method of preparing coffee beans after harvesting the cherry (fruit).
During milling the coffee's parchment (pergamino; pergaminho) is removed, as is the thin silverskin beneath. This is accomplished using hullers which mill off the parchment and polish the beans, removing the silverskin.
MILLSTONE COFFEE COMPANY - See coffee companies.
MILLSTONE SLOW - A custom coffee roasting technique in which the roastmaster listens carefully for distinct popping sounds as the coffee beans expand. This is done in small batches, with the roastmaster carefully sampling each batch to make sure the perfect roast level is being achieved.
MOCA COFFEE - See Yemen Mocha Coffee.
MOCCA COFFEE - See Yemen Mocha Coffee.
MOCHACCINO - See Espresso Drink Recipes.
MOCHA COFFEE (Moka Coffee, Mocca Coffee, Moca Coffee) - See Yemen Mocha Coffee.
MOCHA COFFEE DRINK (Café Mocha) - See Espresso Drink Recipes.
MOCHA HARRAR COFFEE (Mocha Harar Coffee) - See Ethiopian Harrar Mocha Coffee.
MOCHA JAVA COFFEE (Mocha-Java Coffee) - See Mocha Java Coffee.
MOCHA LATTE - See Espresso Drink Recipes.
MOCHA MATTARI COFFEE (Mocha Matari Coffee) - See Mocha Mattari Coffee.
MOCHA SANANI COFFEE - See Mocha Sanani Coffee.
MOKA (Mokka) - Coffee made with a Moka Pot, which is sometimes referred to as a stove-top espresso maker because it uses steam pressure to force hot water through coffee grounds, though it falls far short of the pressure of a usual espresso - e.g., 1.5 atmospheres (BARs) vs. 9 atmospheres (BARs).
MOKA COFFEE - See Yemen Mocha Coffee.
MOKA HARRAR COFFEE - See Ethiopian Harrar Mocha Coffee.
MOLDY - A taste defect due to moldiness of the coffee beans. This moldy taste is caused in storage or during the pulping and cleaning of the coffee cherry.
MONSOONED COFFEE - Green coffee beans which are milled but not yet roasted are exposed to moist, warm air throughout the rainy season. Often this is done by leaving the coffee beans out in large, open-roof silos or in open warehouses during the monsoon season to be exposed to the moisture-laden winds.
The monsooning of the coffee beans may continue for as long as three years, resulting in a strengthening of the coffee's sweetness with intense woody and loamy sensations - and a weakening of the acidity.
The monsooned coffee beans also undergo a distinct color change from the original green tint of the coffee beans to a light brown or yellowish color. The muted acidity and heavy body of the coffee beans makes monsooned coffees a good choice for adding depth to espresso blends.
Also see Java Arabica Coffee; Monsooned Coffee; India Monsooned Malabar Coffee; Aged Coffee.
MONSOONED MALABAR COFFEE - See India Monsooned Malabar Coffee.
MONSOONED MYSORE COFFEE - See India Monsooned Mysore Coffee.
MONTE CRISOL COFFEE - One of Costa Rica's finest coffee's, Monte Crisol is grown in the country's West Central Valley. Costa Rica Monte Crisol coffee is known for its silky body as well as its sweetness, and the brewed coffee exhibits topnotes of blueberry and has a buttery finish.
A City Roast or Full City Roast is recommended to highlight the fruity brightness of Monte Crisol. Also see Costa Rica Monte Crisol Coffee; Costa Rica Coffee.
MOSHI COFFEE - A market name for Tanzanian coffee grown on the hills of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Also see Tanzania Coffee.
MOUNTAIN GROWN® - A registered Folgers Coffee Company trademark.
MOUTHFEEL - A sensory evaluation of a coffee's heaviness on the tongue and the coffee's tactile/texture sensations on the palate.
Similar to a coffee's body, the term mouthfeel describes the physical properties of the coffee as it settles in the mouth and on the tongue.
Discerning a coffee's mouthfeel involves identifying its consistency and weight as perceived in the mouth at the back of the tongue, and particularly when the coffee is swooshed around in the mouth, and also after swallowing.
Mouthfeel is a measure of the coffee's viscosity (thickness), which contributes to a sensation of the coffee's richness, including its aroma and flavor.
A coffee's mouthfeel is largely created by the coffee beans' oils which are extracted during the brewing process. Because the drip/filter brewing method removes many desirable flavor oils, the coffee made by this method will have a lighter mouthfeel.
In contrast, a French Press brew or an espresso pulled from an espresso machine (espresso maker) will have a heavier mouthfeel because the essential oils remain in the coffee.
A coffee's mouthfeel may be referred to as light or thin, medium, full, or variations of these terms. A very full coffee will have a buttery or even syrupy quality.
MOY HALL COFFEE ESTATE - One of the most renowned Jamaica Blue Mountain estates which also include Mavis Bank, Wallenford, Old Tavern, and Moy Hall.
Only estates with the registered right and legal permission to call their coffee Jamaica Blue Mountain coffee are allowed to do so. Also see Jamaica Blue Mountain Coffee.
MUCILAGE - The sticky, thin, slippery liquidy substance beneath the pulp and skin of the coffee cherry (fruit), yet outside of (e.g., coating) the parchment and the seed (the coffee bean).
The mucilage is best seen on freshly pulped coffee. Mucilage contains a significant amount of sugar (polysaccharide) and also some caffeine.
MUDDY - Describes a brewed coffee that is thick and flat, with a high quantity of particles (e.g., insoluble proteins and fine particles of coffee bean fibers) suspended in the coffee.
MUNDO NOVO COFFEE - A Coffea arabica coffee plant varietal (Coffea arabica hybrid mundo novo) that is known for its strength and coffee disease resistance.
Discovered in Brazil in the 1940s, Mundo Novo is a hybrid of the Bourbon (Coffea arabica var. bourbon) and Typica (Coffea arabica var. typica) varietals, and was developed in the 1940s in Brazil. Mundo Novo is now grown throughout Latin America.
The varietal Catuai (Coffea arabica var. catuai) is a cross between Mundo Novo and Caturra (Coffea arabica var. caturra).
MUSTY - A stuffy, cellar-like aroma. At best, this coffee characteristic is sometimes desirable, particularly in coffees that have been properly aged. At worst, the musty quality is a severe odor taint which produces a moldy odor.
This musty quality is created by fats in the coffee beans absorbing organic materials from mold or coming into contact with mold during drying. A musty coffee is usually the result of improper drying or aging.
MYSORE STRAIGHT COFFEE (Mysore Coffee) - Coffee grown in India in the State of Karnataka, which was formerly known as Mysore. About 80% of Indian coffee comes from Karnataka, and this coffee is often sold as Indian Mysore.
A good Indian Mysore is sweet with a medium to full body and a subtle, rich flavor complemented by a medium acidity.
Mysore Straight coffee is also called Indian Mysore Coffee and may be aged and exposed to the moist winds of the monsoon season. Also see Monsooned Coffee; India Coffee.
MZUZU COFFEE - Mzuzu coffee beans come from the coffee farmers trust known as Mzuzu in Malawi. This trust was formed by coffee farmers from five Malawi regions and sells green coffee beans online and in United States import stores.
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