Coffee Terms – C (Part 2)

COFFEA ARABICA VAR. PACAS – A Coffea arabica coffee plant varietal commonly called Pacas. The varietal Pacas, a natural mutation of Coffea arabica var. bourbon, was discovered in 1949 in El Salvador. Also see Caturra Coffee.

COFFEA ARABICA VAR. PACHE COMUM – A Coffea arabica coffee plant varietal that is a mutation of the Typica varietal (Coffea arabica var. typica) and produces a brewed coffee known to be smooth though perhaps somewhat flat.

Pache comum grows best at elevations between 3,500 feet and 5,300 feet above sea level, and was first discovered in Santa Rosa, Guatemala on a coffee farm called El Brito, Santa Cruz Noranjo.

COFFEA ARABICA VAR. RUIRI 11 – A Coffea arabica coffee plant varietal (dwarf hybrid) that is valued for its ability to be planted at twice the typical density, its high yield, and its ability to resist coffee diseases such as coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix) and coffee berry disease (Colletotrichum coffeanum).

However, the brewed coffee produced by Ruiri 11 beans is considered inferior to SL28, SL34, and African K7.

The Kenyan Coffee Research Station released Ruiri 11 in 1985. Also see Kenya Coffee.

COFFEA ARABICA VAR. SIDIKALANG – A coffee plant varietal of Coffea arabica var. typica commonly called Sidikalang. The Sidikalang varietal survived the renowned 1880 coffee leaf rust outbreak which destroyed most all Typica plants in Indonesia.

COFFEA ARABICA VAR. TYPICA – A Coffea arabica coffee plant varietal (Coffea arabica var. typica), Typica and varietals derived from Typica tend to grow in a conical shape with secondary varietals growing in a slight slant (e.g., 60 degrees) off the vertical trunk. Typica is a relatively tall coffee plant, grow to 3.75 meters in height.

Though Typica is not an extremely productive varietal (e.g. 25% less productive than the Bourbon varietal), Typica produces one of the finest cups of brewed coffee.

Typica is considered an “Old Arabica” varietal along with Bourbon (Coffea arabica var. bourbon), and these older varietals are said to produced a higher quality cup of brewed coffee than more modern varietals including the many hybrids and other varietals derived from Typica such as Arusha (Coffea arabica var. arusha), Bergendal (Coffea arabica var. bergendal), Blue Mountain (Coffea arabica var. blue mountain), Maragogype (Coffea arabica var. maragogype), Maragojipe (Coffea arabica var. maragojipe), Mundo Novo (Coffea arabica var. mundo novo), Pacas (Coffea arabica var. pacas), Pache comum (Coffea arabica var. pache comum), and Sidikalang (Coffea arabica var. sidikalang).

All Typica plants today are virtually the same genetic variety as the coffee plants given to King Louis XIV by the French in the 17th century. Since the time of King Louis and the French intrigue, slight mutations to the Typica varietal have occurred in the different locations where it is grown including Kona in Hawaii. To read about the unique history of this prized coffee, see World’s Best History of Coffee.

COFFEA ARABICA VAR. VILLA SARCHI – A Coffea arabica coffee plant varietal commonly called Villa Sarchi. The varietal Villa Sarchi is derived from the Bourbon varietal (Coffea arabica var. bourbon) and the Caturra varietal (Coffea arabica var. caturra in Costa Rica. Also see Costa Rica Coffee.

COFFEA CANEPHORA – Canephora is a coffee plant species (Coffea canephora), a variety of which is called Robusta (Coffea canephora var. robusta), one of the two main commercially cultivated coffees along with Arabica (Coffea arabica). A relatively small about of Liberica Coffee (Coffea liberica) is also grown commercially.

Botanically Canephora is a self-sterile, diploid coffee plant with two main recognized forms of cultivars: Nganda (a spreading form), and Robusta (an upright form).

Robusta coffee beans contain about twice as much caffeine as Arabica coffee beans and are used for most instant coffees. Many of the world’s largest commercial coffee roasters use large quantities of Robusta coffee beans.

Robusta coffee plants comprise only about 25% of the world’s commercially grown coffee, while most coffee plants grown (about 70%) are Arabica.

Robusta coffee plants are easier to grow (e.g., more “robust”) because they tolerate less favorable soil and climate conditions and grow at lower elevations. See Robusta Coffee for a complete description. Also see Arabica Coffee; Liberica Coffee.

COFFEA CANEPHORA VAR. Robusta – A Canephora coffee plant varietal (Coffea canephora var. robusta), and one of the two main commercially cultivated coffees along with Arabica (Coffea arabica) and its varietals. A relatively small about of Liberica Coffee (Coffea liberica) is also grown commercially.

Robusta coffee beans are used for most instant coffees, and contain about twice as much caffeine as Arabica coffee beans. Many of the world’s largest commercial coffee roasters use large quantities of Robusta beans.

Robusta coffee plants comprise only about 25% of the world’s commercially grown coffee, with Arabica comprising about 70%. Robusta plants are easier to grow (e.g., more “robust”) because they tolerate less favorable climate and soil conditions and grow at lower elevations.

In contrast, the Arabica species is more vulnerable to coffee plant diseases and pests, more sensitive to handling and temperature, and has a lower yield per plant – thus Robusta coffee is less expensive to grow.

The roundish Robusta coffee cherry (fruits) may take up to 11 months to mature, and encase oval-shaped coffee beans that are generally smaller than Arabica beans. Robusta coffee plants may reach 30 feet (10 meters) in height although their root system is very shallow.

Before Robusta beans are roasted they conjure smells of peanuts or oats, giving off a nutty, grainy fragrance. Once they are roasted, Robusta beans often smell burnt (e.g., burnt rubber or plastic), and perhaps slightly woody.

Robusta coffee tends to be bitter compared to Arabica coffee. Robusta also has less pleasant acidity levels.

Though Robusta coffees have no significant presence in the specialty coffee market, they are often used as a base in espresso blends to enhance the body of the espresso.

Robusta plants are grown primarily in Central Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Southeast Asia, India, and Indonesia.

Robusta is also grown in Brazil, where it is called Conilon.

In addition there are hybrid forms of coffee plants that cross Arabica varietals with Robusta varietals, with the goal of conferring disease resistance and “robust” plant qualities on the Arabica varietal or conferring desirable taste and aromatic qualities on the Robusta varietal.

For example, the Sarchimor coffee plant varietal is a hybrid between the Timor varietal and the Costa Rican Villa Sarchi varietal (Coffea arabica var. villa sarchi).

Due to traits inherited from the Timor varietal (which is itself a hybrid of Coffea canephora var. robusta  and Coffea arabica), the Sarchimor varietal has a significant resistance to the coffee diseases coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix) as well as the stem borer.

The Catimor coffee plant varietal (Coffea arabica var. catimor) is a cross between Timor and the Caturra varietal (Coffea arabica var. caturra). Catimor coffee plants are known for their resistance to coffee rust and produce among the highest yields of commercial coffee plants.

The varietal Arabusta, grown in Africa, is another interspecific hybrid of Robusta (Coffea canephora var. robusta) and Coffea arabica.

Icatu hybrids are created through repeated backcrossing of hybrids of Coffea arabica and Robusta (Coffea canephora var. robusta) with the coffee plant cultivars Mundo Novo (Coffea arabica var. mundo novo) and Caturra (Coffea arabica var. caturra).

Also see Arabica Coffee; Liberica Coffee.

COFFEA LIBERICA – See Liberica Coffee.

COCOA – A bittersweet aroma suggesting unsweetened chocolate.

COFFEE (Coffee Beverage) – See Coffee Beverage.

COFFEE ASSOCIATION OF CANADA – See Coffee Associations, Organizations, and Boards.

COFFEE BEAN IMPERFECTION (Coffee Imperfection) – A coffee defect which may include hollow, deformed, chipped, nicked beans, underripe beans, or overripe beans, moldiness, black beans, quakers, improper harvesting or processing, improper moisture content during storing, or any other bean property causing a flavor and/or aroma defect/fault/taint.

COFFEE BEAN GRADING (Coffee Bean Grade) – See Grading Coffee Beans.

COFFEE BEANS – See Coffee Beans.

COFFEE BED – Coffee grinds placed in a filter-drip coffee brewing machine or tamped in a filter basket in a portafilter of an espresso machine (espresso coffee maker) previous to the brewing of the espresso shot(s). Also see Puck; Pack; Tamping Espresso Coffee.

COFFEE BERRY DISEASE – A fungus (Colletotrichum coffeanum) that takes hold in the bark of coffee trees and then produces spores that attack the coffee fruit (cherry).

One coffee varietal that is known to be quite resistant to the berry disease and also to coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix), is the Kenyan hybrid Ruiru 11. See Coffee Plant Diseases and Pests.

COFFEE BOARD OF KENYA – See Coffee Associations, Organizations, and Boards.

COFFEE BREAK – A traditional social gathering, perhaps about fifteen minutes long, and typically taking place among workers during a morning or afternoon break at their place of employment.

COFFEE BREWING (Coffee Brewing Equipment; Coffee Brewing Machines; Coffee Makers) – See Coffee Brewing; Pod Coffee Makers.

COFFEE BREWING FORMULA – The ratio of coffee to water used for the optimal coffee beverage strength from a given type of coffee brewing equipment.

COFFEE BUSH – See Coffee Plants.

COFFEE CHERRY (Coffee Fruit; Coffee Berry) – See Coffee Cherry.

COFFEE COMPANION – See Coffee Websites.

COFFEE COMPARABILITY – A restaurant management’s examination of the pricing structure of coffee in other similar restaurants in the same area to determine if reasonable prices are being offered in line with the overall marketplace.

COFFEE CONTRACT – A legally binding contractual agreement to either make delivery or take delivery of 37,500 pounds of roasted Arabica coffee beans from a particular country at a specific price (e.g., as determined by the free market), and at a predetermined time (a specified future month).

The price of Coffee Contracts largely determines the price of the world’s Arabica Coffees.

COFFEE CORPS- See Coffee Associations, Organizations, and Boards.

COFFEE CULTIVAR (Coffee Cultigen) – See Coffee plant varietals.

COFFEE CUPPER – A professional coffee taster whose goal is to objectively assess and evaluate coffee quality by the process of Cupping. See Coffee Cupping (Professional Coffee Tasting).

COFFEE CUPPERS – See Coffee Websites.

COFFEE CUPPING – See Coffee Cupping (Professional Coffee Tasting).

COFFEE DECAFFEINATION (Coffee Decaffeination Methods; Coffee Decaffeination Process) – See Decaffeinated Coffee.

COFFEE DEFECT (Coffee Bean Defect; Coffee Taste Defect) – See Coffee Defects.

COFFEE DISEASES AND PESTS (Coffee Plant Diseases) – See Coffee Plant Diseases and Pests.

COFFEE DRINKS – See Espresso Drink Recipes.

COFFEE DRYING METHODS – Sun-drying of coffee is done by spreading the coffee beans onto a large, flat floor, deck, rack, or hoshidana. The coffee beans are then frequently raked so they may dry evenly. A hoshidana has a rolling roof that is closed when it rains.

Mechanical dryers may be used instead of sun drying. Mechanical drying uses a rotating hot drum and can be completed in just a few hours, though this method is generally considered inferior to sun-drying.

COFFEE EQUIPMENT – See Coffee Makers.

COFFEE FILTERING METHODS – The most common filtering methods for filtering brewed coffee utilize either filter paper, cloth, or a metal screen filter.

COFFEE FLAVOR – See Coffee Flavor.

COFFEE FLAVORING MATERIAL – The substances derived by brewing ground and roasted coffee beans, giving the coffee its body, flavor, and aromatic qualities. These coffee flavoring materials include liquids, gases, and solids.

COFFEE FLAVOR OILS – The volatile essence of the coffee bean. Coffee oils develop in the coffee beans during the roasting process. Also called Coffeol; Coffee Oils; Flavor Oils; Volatile Oils; Essential Oils

COFFEE FLAVOR PROFILE – A coffee’s overall flavor qualities including body, aroma, acidity, sweetness/bitterness, and finish/aftertaste. Also important is whether there are any flavor defects.

COFFEE FUTURES MARKET – The primary marketplace for the trading of international Coffee Futures Contracts. The London Futures Exchange handles Robusta Futures while the New York Coffee, Sugar, and Cocoa Exchange handles Arabica Futures.

COFFEE GEEK – See Coffee Websites.

COFFEE GRADE/COFFEE GRADING – See Grading Coffee Beans.

COFFEE GRINDERS – See Coffee Grinders.

COFFEE GRINDING SPECIFICATIONS – The coffee grind specifications delineate the proper size of the coffee particles, from coarse to fine, for the specific coffee brewing equipment and coffee brewing method, with a goal of optimizing the extraction of the coffee’s flavor and aroma components.

For coffee the proper grind varies for different brewing methods. See Automatic Drip Coffee Makers; French Press Coffee; Espresso Brewing; Coffee Brewing; Coffee Grinding.

COFFEE HARVESTING – See Harvesting Coffee.

COFFEEHOUSE (Coffee House)A coffee shop, coffee vending shop, café, or other establishment that centers around the offerings of espresso-based specialty coffee drinks (espresso drinks) and typically also offers tea, hot chocolate, and other specialty beverages.

Many coffeehouses also sell bakery products (e.g., croissants, muffins), light desserts, and various other treats.

A coffeehouse typically has some of the characteristics of a restaurant and some of the characteristics of a bar, though usually alcoholic beverages are not offered. See Espresso Drink Recipes; Espresso Cuisine.

COFFEE HISTORY – See World’s Best History of Coffee.

COFFEE INDUSTRY BOARD OF JAMAICA (CIB) – See Coffee Associations, Organizations, and Boards.

COFFEE K-CUPS (K-Cups Coffee; K Cups Coffee; K Coffee Cups; Coffee K Cup; Coffee K Cups; KCups; K-Cups; K Cup Coffee; K Cups for Coffee) – See Coffee K-Cups.

COFFEE KIDS – See Coffee Websites.

COFFEE LEAF RUST – A coffee disease that can devastate an Arabica coffee plantation. Caused by the fungus Hemileia vastatrix, the first signs of the disease are yellow or yellow-orange spots on the underside of coffee plant leaves, leading to defoliation and reducing the growth of the plant’s fruit (cherry).

Leaf rust was first noted in 1861 in Kenya, and by the 1920s it was widespread in the coffee-growing countries of Asia and Africa.

Coffee rust began to show up in the Western hemisphere in the 1970s, and by the mid-1980s was found in all of the West’s major coffee-growing countries. One of the very few coffee-growing areas free of coffee rust is Hawaii. Also called Orange Leaf Rust.

COFFEE MACHINES (Coffee Brewing Machines; Coffee Makers) – See Coffee Makers; Pod Coffee Makers; Espresso Machines; Coffee Brewing; Espresso Brewing.

COFFEE MAKERS – See Coffee Makers.

COFFEE OIL – The volatile essence of the coffee bean. Coffee oils develop in the coffee beans during the coffee roasting process. Coffee oil is also called Coffeol; Oil; Flavor Oils; Volatile Oils; Essential Oils.

COFFEEOL – The volatile essence of the coffee bean. Coffeeol develops in the coffee beans during the roasting process. Coffeol is also called Oil; Coffee Oil; Essential Oils; Flavor Oils; Volatile Oils.

COFFEE PACK – Coffee grinds tamped in a filter basket in a portafilter of an espresso machine (espresso maker) previous to the brewing of the espresso shot(s). Also see Puck; Tamping Espresso Coffee.

COFFEE PLANT DISEASES AND PESTS (Coffee Diseases) – See Coffee Plant Diseases and Pests.

COFFEE PLANTS (Coffee Bush; Coffee Tree) – See Coffee Plants.

COFFEE PLANT STRAIN – See Coffee plant varietals.

COFFEE PLANT VARIETAL (Coffee Plant Variety; Coffee Variety; Coffee Plant Varietal; Coffee Plant Cultivar; Coffee Plant Cultigen; Coffee Plant Strain) – See Coffee plant varietals.

COFFEE POD MAKERS (Pod Coffee Makers; Pod Coffee Maker; Pod Coffee Makers; Coffee Pods Makers; Pods Coffee Maker; Pods Coffee Makers; Coffee Pod Machines; Pod Coffee Machines; Pods Coffee Machines) – See Pod Coffee Makers.

COFFEE PODS (Coffee Pads; Pod Coffee) – See Coffee Pods.

COFFEE PROCESSING – See Coffee Processing.

COFFEE PROJECT- See Coffee Associations, Organizations, and Boards.

COFFEE PUCK – The bed of roasted, ground coffee in the filter basket of the portafilter of an espresso machine (espresso coffee maker) subsequent to the brewing of an espresso. Also called Spent Puck. Also see Pack; Tamping Espresso Coffee.

COFFEE QUALITY INSTITUTE – See Coffee Associations, Organizations, and Boards.

COFFEE RESEARCH FOUNDATION – Coffee Associations, Organizations, and Boards.

COFFEERESEARCH.ORG

COFFEERESEARCH.ORG – See Coffee Associations, Organizations, and Boards.

COFFEE RESEARCH STATION – See Kenya Coffee Research Station.

COFFEE REVIEW – See Coffee Websites.

COFFEE ROASTERS – See Coffee Roasters.

COFFEE ROASTING – See Roasting Coffee.

COFFEE ROASTING MACHINES – See Coffee Roasters.

COFFEE ROAST PROFILE – coffee’s roast profile is a graph of the temperature of the coffee beans while roasting.

COFFEE RUST – A coffee disease that is caused by the fungus Hemileia vastatrix and can devastate an Arabica coffee plantation. Yellow or yellow-orange spots on the underside of coffee plant leaves are the first signs of the rust disease. This leads to defoliation and reduces the plant’s fruit (cherry) growth.

Coffee rust was first noted in 1861 in Kenya, and by the 1920s it was widespread in the coffee-growing countries of Africa and Asia.

Coffee rust began to show up in the Western hemisphere in the 1970s, and then by the mid-1980s was found in all of the West’s major coffee-growing countries. One of the very few coffee-growing areas free of coffee rust is Hawaii. Also called Coffee Leaf Rust; Orange Leaf Rust.

COFFEE SCIENCE INFORMATION CENTRE (COSIC) – See Coffee Associations, Organizations, and Boards.

COFFEESCIENCE.ORG – See Coffee Associations, Organizations, and Boards.

COFFEE SEED – See Coffee Beans.

COFFEE SUBSTITUTES – Chicory, the root of the endive plant, is often used as a coffee substitute or to extend coffee (see New Orleans Coffee). United States federal law requires coffee labels to inform the buyer of any substitutes used in coffees.

COFFEE SHOP – A coffeehouse, coffee vending shop, café, or other establishment that centers around the offerings of espresso-based specialty coffee drinks (espresso drinks) and also often offers hot chocolate, tea, and other specialty beverages. Many coffeehouses also sell croissants, bakery products, light desserts, and other treats.

A coffee shop typically has some of the characteristics of a restaurant and some of the characteristics of a bar, though alcoholic beverages are usually not offered. See Espresso Drink Recipes; Espresso Cuisine.

COFFEE SYRUP – Common in the New England region, coffee syrup is a beverage additive that is similar to chocolate syrup but with a coffee flavor and is used to make coffee milk.

COFFEE TALK – See Coffee Websites.

COFFEE TAMPER – A small, pestle-like tool/device that is flat and round on one end, and held in the hand by the other as it is used to tamp, or compact loose, roasted, finely ground coffee so it can be put into a portafilter/filter basket for brewing an espresso.

Tampers come in standard sizes which are typically measured in millimeters and specify the filter basket’s internal diameter. High-end and commercial espresso machines usually use a 58 mm tamper and standard smaller tamper sizes include 49 mm, 53 mm, and 57 mm.

About 20 pounds of pressure is required to compress the bed of loose coffee grounds and this tamping pressure may vary depending upon the fineness of the coffee grinds, the espresso machine’s pressure, and the particular coffee being used and how fresh it is. See Tamping Espresso Coffee.

COFFEE TASTE – The overall description and combined sensations and perceptions of the distinctive aromatic and flavor characteristics of the coffee; the fusion of body, acidity, aroma, and aftertaste. A well-balanced coffee is one in which no single taste characteristic dominates and/or overpowers/overwhelms the others.

The water-soluble taste and aromatic compounds of coffee are perceived primarily through smell (the olfactory membranes) and taste buds (nerve endings on the tongue). Cuppers (professional coffee tasters) often distinguish the coffee’s taste (flavor) from its acidity, aroma, and body.

Some general coffee taste descriptions include complex (multi-flavored), rich (describes a full-bodied coffee), and bitter. Some coffees have a taste reminiscent of red wine and are referred to as winy. Other coffees have a fruity essence that suggests berries or citrus.

Many other coffee taste characteristics are listed throughout this Coffee Terms.

COFFEE TASTES (PRIMARY) – According to some coffee aficionados, the primary taste sensations in regards to coffee are soury, sharp, mellow, acidy, winey, and bland. Also see Basic Coffee Flavor Characteristics; Basic Coffee Tastes; and Secondary Coffee Flavor Sensations.

COFEE TASTES (SECONDARY) – Qualities noticed in a cup of brewed coffee which are not primary flavors/tastes/qualities but instead supplemental or secondary.

These secondary coffee flavor characteristics include a variety of tastes including tart, tangy, delicate, piquant, neutral, rough, astringent, acrid, and alkaline as well as hard and soft.

Also see Basic Coffee Flavor Characteristics; Primary Taste Sensations; Basic Coffee Tastes; and Primary Coffee Flavor Sensations.

COFFEE TASTING – See Coffee Cupping (Professional Coffee Tasting).

COFFEE TASTE PROFILE – A coffee’s overall flavor qualities including body, aroma, acidity, sweetness/bitterness, and finish/aftertaste. Also important is whether there are any flavor defects.

COFFEE TREE – See Coffee Plants.

COFFEE UNIVERSE – See Coffee Websites.

COFFEE VENDING SHOP – A coffee shop, coffeehouse, café, or other establishment that centers around the offerings of espresso-based specialty coffee drinks (espresso drinks) and typically also offers tea, hot chocolate, and other specialty beverages. Many vending shops also sell bakery products (e.g., muffins, croissants), light desserts, and various other treats.

A coffee vending shop typically has some of the characteristics of a restaurant and some of the characteristics of a bar, though alcoholic beverages are typically not offered. See Espresso Drink Recipes; Espresso Cuisine.

COLADA – Refers to an order of Cafe Cubano drinks for a group.

COLD WATER BREWING METHOD (Cold-Water Brewing Method; Cold-Water Coffee Brewing Method; Cold Water Coffee Brewing Method; Cold-Water Method; Cold Water Method) – A method of brewing coffee which involves soaking the ground coffee in a relatively small amount of cold water for about fifteen hours, then using a filter to separate the grounds from the beverage using the drip method.

The Cold Water Method produces strong, concentrated coffee, which is often stored for ready use, and may be mixed with hot water when desired. The coffee tends to have a light body and be low in acidity and while some consider the flavor bland others describe it as a very pleasing, delicate taste.

COLUMBIAN ARMENIA COFFEE (Colombia Armenian Coffee) – A coffee grown in Colombia that is one of the principal Milds. Also see Colombian Medellin Supremo Coffee; Colombian Manizales Coffee; Colombian Coffee.

COLUMBIAN BUCARAMANGA COFFEE (Colombia Bucaramanga Coffee) – A coffee plant varietal grown in Colombia and known for its low acidity. Also see Colombian Coffee.

COLUMBIAN COFFEE (Colombia Coffee) – See Colombian Coffee.

COLUMBIAN CUCUTA COFFEE (Colombia Cucuta Coffee) – A coffee grown in Colombia and most often shipped through Maracaibo, Venezuela. Also see Colombian Coffee.

COLUMBIAN EXCELSO COFFEE (Colombia Excelso Coffee; Colombia Escelso Coffee; Colombian Escelso Coffee) – See Colombian Excelso Coffee.

COLUMBIAN MANIZALES COFFEE (Colombia Manizales Coffee) – A coffee grown in Colombia that is one of the principal Milds. Also see Colombian Medellin Supremo Coffee and Colombian Armenia Coffee. Also see Colombian Coffee.

COLUMBIAN MEDELLIN COFFEE (Colombia Medellin Coffee; Colombian Medellín Coffee; Colombia Medellín Coffee) – A Colombian coffee that is one of the coffee principal Milds. Also see Colombia Medellin Supremo Coffee; Colombian Manizales Coffee; Colombian Armenia Coffee; Colombian Coffee.

COLUMBIAN MEDELLIN SUPREMO COFFEE (Colombia Medellin Supremo Coffee; Colombia Medellín Supremo Coffee; Colombian Medellín Supremo Coffee) – See Colombian Medellin Supremo Coffee.

COLUMBIAN NARINO COFFEE (Colombia Narino Coffee; Colombian Nariño Coffee; Colombia Nariño Coffee) – See Colombian Narino Coffee.

COLUMBIAN COFFEE FEDERATION (National Federation of Coffee Growers of Colombia) – See Coffee Associations, Organizations, and Boards.

COLUMBIAN MILD COFFEE – The term Colombian Mild may refer to a coffee but also to an International Coffee Organization grouping of wet processed (washed) Arabica coffee beans (Colombian Milds) which are produced in the countries of Colombia, Tanzania, and Kenya. Also see Colombian Coffee.

COMMERCIAL COFFEES – Typically pre-ground, commercial coffees are often packed in vacuum cans and in the case of instant coffee they are even pre-brewed.

Commercially coffees are typically made with inferior coffee beans including beans that are overripe, immature, or have other coffee defects. The result is a pronounced bitterness.

COMMERCIAL ESPRESSO MACHINES – See Commercial Espresso Machines.

COMMON – An ordinary, average coffee not distinguished by any special qualities.

COMPARABILITY – A restaurant management’s examination of the pricing structure of other similar restaurants in the same area. The goal of determining comparability is so that your establishment may offer reasonable prices in line with the marketplace.

COMPLEX (Complexity) – Multiple layers of flavors present in the brewed coffee, with the tastes shifting among pleasurable sensations which exhibit both resonance and depth of flavors. Some premium gourmet coffees notable for their complexity are Yemen Mocha as well as Ethiopian, and Sumatran coffees.

CONDENSER – A machine used as part of the process of making freeze-dried coffee, expanding the water frozen into the granules, which then grow ten times in size as water vapor is removed from the drying chamber. Following condensation, the granules are packaged for sale. Also see Instant Coffee.

CONDUCTIVITY METER – A scientific device that measures a coffee’s soluble solids. The Conductivity Meter measures the increase in conductivity (ionization), of water when the brewed coffee’s flavoring materials are present.

CONGO COFFEE – See Congo Coffee.

CONICAL BURR GRINDER – See Conical Burr Grinders.

CONILON – The Brazil name for Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora var. robusta), one of the two main commercially cultivated coffees along with Arabica (Coffea arabica) and its varietals. A relatively small about of Liberica Coffee (Coffea liberica) is also grown commercially.

Conilon coffee beans are used for most instant coffees, and contain about twice as much caffeine as Arabica coffee beans. Many of the world’s largest commercial coffee roasters use large quantities of Conilon beans.

About 70% of all coffee grown is Arabica, while Conilon coffee plants comprise only about 25% of the world’s commercially grown coffee.

Conilon plants are easier to grow (e.g., more “robust”) because they tolerate less favorable soil and climate conditions and also grow at lower elevations.

In contrast, the Arabica species is more prone to coffee plant diseases and pests, more sensitive to handling and temperature, and has a lower yield per plant. For these reasons, Conilon coffee is less expensive to grow.

Conilon coffee plants may reach 30 feet (10 meters) in height, yet their root system is very shallow. The roundish Robusta coffee cherry (fruits) may take up to 11 months to mature, and encase oval-shaped coffee beans that are generally smaller than Arabica beans.

Before Conilon beans are roasted they conjure smells of peanuts or oats, giving off a nutty, grainy fragrance. Once they are roasted, Conilon beans often smell burnt (e.g., burnt rubber or plastic), and perhaps slightly woody. Conilon coffee tends to be bitter compared to Arabica. Conilon also has less pleasant acidity levels.

Though Conilon coffees have no significant presence in the premium gourmet coffee market, they are often used as a base in espresso blends to enhance the body of the espresso.

Conilon plants are grown primarily in Central Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Southeast Asia, India, and Indonesia as well as Brazil.

In addition there are hybrid forms of coffee plants that cross Conilon with Arabica varietals with the goal of conferring disease resistance and “robust” plant qualities on the Arabica varietal or conferring desirable flavor and aroma qualities on the Robusta varietal.

For example, the Sarchimor coffee plant varietal is a hybrid between the Timor varietal and the Costa Rican Villa Sarchi varietal (Coffea arabica var. villa sarchi).

Due to traits inherited from the Timor varietal (which is itself a hybrid of Coffea canephora var. robusta and Coffea arabica), the Sarchimor varietal has a significant resistance to the stem borer as well as coffee disease coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix).

The Catimor coffee plant varietal (Coffea arabica var. catimor) is a cross between the Caturra varietal (Coffea arabica var. Caturra) and Timor. Catimor coffee plants are known for their resistance to coffee rust and produce among the highest yields of commercial coffee plants.

The varietal Arabusta, grown in Africa, is another interspecific hybrid of Robusta (Coffea canephora var. robusta) and Coffea arabica. Icatu hybrids are created through repeated backcrossing of hybrids of Coffea arabica and Robusta with the coffee plant cultivars Caturra (Coffea arabica var. caturra) and Mundo Novo (Coffea arabica var. mundo novo).

Also see Arabica Coffee; Liberica Coffee.

CON LECHE (Café Con Leche) – See Espresso Drink Recipes.

CONNOISSEUR’S CUP – A good Kenya Coffee is considered the “Connoisseur’s Cup” because Kenyan coffees are known for their excellent balance of body, acidity, and flavor. See Kenya Coffee.

CON PANNA (Espresso Con Panna) – See Espresso Drink Recipes.

CONSUMER ESPRESSO MACHINES – See Home Espresso Machines.

CONTINENTAL ROAST – This dark roast is also called an Espresso Roast, European Roast, or Very Dark-Brown Roast. Also see Dark Roast; Roasting Coffee.

CONTINUOUS FLUIDIZED BED ROASTING – Roasting coffee beans by levitating the beans on a cushion of hot air. See Roasting Coffee.

CONTINUOUS ROASTER – A coffee roaster suitable for large batches of commercial coffee, and which roasts the coffee continuously rather than consecutive batches. See Roasting Coffee.

CONTROL PANEL – The control center of an espresso machine (espresso coffee maker) including some or all of the following knobs and/or switches: power, steam control, brew control, and hot water dispensing. Switches may be push-button, rocker type, or pressure sensitive.

CONVERTIBLE FILTER BASKET (Convertible Basket) – A type of espresso machine filter basket that will produce either a single shot (solo shot) or a double shot (doppio).

COOKED – A fairly typical instant coffee taste characteristic created by the coffee being treated at too high of a temperature. This cooked impression is typically a process taste.

COSIC – See Coffee Science Information Centre.

COSTA RICA COFFEE (Costa Rican Coffee) – See Costa Rica Coffee.

COSTA RICA COFFEE GRADING (Costa Rican Coffee Grading) – The coffee grading system of Costa Rica is altitude based and grades by hardness, which is affected by altitude. In general, higher regions producing denser, and thus harder coffee beans.

Costa Rica’s coffee grading system includes the following classifications: Strictly Hard Beans (SHB), which grow higher than 3,900 feet above sea level; Good Hard Beans (GHB), which grow at elevations between 3,300 feet and 3,900 feet, and Medium Hard Beans (MHB), which grow at elevations from 1,600 feet to 3,000 feet.

COSTA RICA MONTE CRISOL COFFEE (Costa Rican Monte Crisol Coffee) – See Costa Rica Monte Crisol Coffee.

COSTA RICA SARCHIMOR (Costa Rican Sarchimor) – The Sarchimor coffee plant varietal is a hybrid between the Timor varietal and the Costa Rican Villa Sarchi varietal (Coffea arabica var. villa sarchi). Sarchimor is known for its resistance to the coffee disease coffee leaf rust.

Due to traits inherited from the Timor varietal (which is itself a hybrid of Coffea canephora var. robusta and Coffea arabica), the Sarchimor varietal has a significant resistance to the coffee disease coffee leaf rust as well as the stem borer. The Sarchimor varietal grows in India as well as Costa Rica. Also see Costa Rica Coffee.

COSTA RICA VILLA SARCHI COFFEE (Costa Rican Villa Sarchi) – A Coffea arabica coffee plant varietal (Coffea arabica var. villa sarchi) derived from the Bourbon varietal (Coffea arabica var. bourbon) and the Caturra varietal (Coffea arabica var. caturra) in Costa Rica. Also see Costa Rica Coffee.

COURSE – A coffee taste characteristic that makes the coffee feel rough on the tongue.

CREOSOL – A supplemental coffee flavor sensation that exhibits a mostly scratching sensation at the posterior (back) of the tongue. The creosol taste is caused by a Dark Roast which creates a relatively high ratio of phenolic compounds.

CREAMY – A taste characteristic of coffee which has been brewed from coffee beans with significant amounts of fat, resulting in high levels of suspended oily materials in the brewed coffee.

CREMA – See Crema.

CRF – See Kenyan Coffee Research Foundation.

CRUST – Also known as the cap, the crust is the bed of coffee grounds that rises to the top of the coffee cup during a traditional coffee cupping (professional coffee tasting) when the hot water is poured directly atop the ground coffee in a small porcelain or glass cup.

After near-boiling water is poured on top of the coffee it is then allowed to steep for about four minutes. During this time the coffee grinds will rise up to the top and form a thick crust. The taster should then inspect the coffee for any rancid or sour smells.

Next the professional coffee taster gently breaks the crust using a spoon. Silver-plated spoons are preferred for this because steel may impart an unwanted flavor. The taster places the spoon horizontally in front of his or her face and near the front lip of the porcelain cup, and then uses the spoon to push the crust to the back of the cup.

As the coffee taster pushes the grinds toward the back, she/he then inhales the coffee’s gases and vapors that come from the coffee’s volatile organic compounds. This allows the cupper to evaluate the aromatic bouquet of the coffee.

At this point the taster also inspects the coffee for a layer of fine-celled foam on top because this is a sign of freshness.

Finally the cupper either removes the coffee grinds or lets them sink to the bottom of the cup, and then uses the spoon to slurp the coffee while further evaluating its tastes and its aromatic qualities.

All of the coffee’s characteristics are evaluated including the body (mouthfeel), sweetness, bitterness, acidity, and finish/aftertaste.

CUBAN COFFEE – See Espresso Drink Recipes.

CUBANO – See Espresso Drink Recipes.

CUCUTA COFFEE – A coffee grown in Colombia and most often shipped through Maracaibo, Venezuela. Also see Colombian Coffee.

CUISINART COFFEE MAKER – The popular Grind & Brew Thermal™ 10-Cup Coffeemaker produced by Cuisinart automatically grinds coffee before brewing it. The automatic drip coffee maker is 24-hour programmable and includes a double-wall insulated thermal carafe as well as a charcoal water filter that removes impurities.

CULTIVAR (Cultigen) – See Coffee plant varietals.

CUPPER – A professional coffee taster whose goal is to objectively assess and evaluate coffee quality by the process of coffee cupping (professional coffee tasting).

CUPPING – See Coffee Cupping (Professional Coffee Tasting).

CUP OF EXCELLENCE – See Coffee Websites.

CUPPING METHOD – The procedure used by cuppers (professional coffee tasters) to objectively assess and evaluate (judge) the quality of a specific coffee.

Cuppers engage in coffee cuppings in order to analyze all of basic coffee flavor characteristics/taste sensations including the coffee’s body, sweetness, bitterness, aroma, acidity, and finish/aftertaste. In this way they are evaluating the complete flavor profile of the coffee.

Because there are many subtle tastes and nuances of specialty coffee, and because coffee cuppers also evaluate the aroma, a proper tasting is best performed in an cupping environment that is absent of any strong odors such as someone’s perfume.

The first step is to grind about two tablespoons of the the coffee to be tasted into a small cup, then evaluate its fragrance. For grinding it is best to use a Burr coffee grinder rather than a blade coffee grinder because they provide consistency in the grind size. The best grind consistency is achieved using a conical burr grinder.

The next step is to pour water that is just below boiling temperature on top of the coffee grounds and let it steep for three to four minutes. During this time the coffee grinds will rise up to the top of the cup and there they will form into a crust.

At this point check the coffee for any off-smells. The break the crust very gently with a spoon and push it toward the back of the cup. Breathe in the coffee’s aromatic bouquet and make an initial evaluation of the coffee’s aroma. Inspect the surface of the coffee – is there a thin layer of fine-celled foam? This is a sign of a fresh coffee.

Now you are ready to remove the coffee grinds, or just let them sink to the bottom, and then use a small spoon to slurp some of the coffee into your mouth. Swirl it around and disperse it throughout your mouth so it mixes with air. Evaluate the coffee’s body, or mouthfeel and also note the coffee’s acidity.

Now it is time to evaluate the nose of the coffee. Discern the cofee’s the volatile organic compounds as the gases and vapors of the coffee release into your mouth.

Suck in a small amount of the coffee and let it spray across your palate and over your tongue in the process called aspiration. This enhances the sensory experience and will help you evaluate the brewed coffee.

Finally you can either spit out the coffee or swallow it, and when you do make sure to notice the coffee’s finish, or aftertaste.

When this is done make sure to now consider the coffee’s overall quality as well as each of its particular characteristics including aroma, sweetness, bitterness, body, acidity, and finish/aftertaste. How would you describe the coffee’s overall taste and aromatic profile.

CUP TRAY – The place on top of (or part of) the drip tray of an espresso machine (espresso coffee maker) where the demitasse (or other cup) is placed to prepare for brewing a shot of espresso.

CUP WARMER – An area of an espresso machine that warms the espresso cups (e.g., demitasse). The cup warmer is typically on the top of the espresso machine directly over the boiler.

Not all espresso machines have cup warmers, though some espresso machines have actively heated cup warmers (e.g., the Solis SL-90). Warming the cup is an integral part of preparing an espresso shot to prevent the cup from swiftly losing heat (and thus flavor) if poured into a cold cup.

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