HALF CITY ROAST – See Light Roast.
HAITIAN BLEU COFFEE (Haitian Bleu Green Coffee Beans) – See Haitian Bleu Coffee.
HAITI COFFEE (Haitian Coffee) – See Haiti Coffee.
This hard quality is an unbalanced coffee taste characteristic which strikes the palate with a mixed sensation, and is created by a lower than normal percentage of either salts or sugars in the coffee, combined with a higher percentage of sour acids. Due to these conditions, the coffee’s astringency and bitterness are not complemented by the coffee’s body.
Degrees of hardness are ranked in the order of Rioy, hard, hardish, softish/hardish, softish, soft, and strictly soft.
HARD BEAN – Describes a coffee grown at an altitude higher than 3,000 feet. The low temperatures and other characteristics of high-altitude coffee growing conditions are known to produce coffee beans that mature more slowly than lower altitude coffees, producing a coffee bean that is harder and less porous, and with a brighter acidity. Also see Grading Coffee Beans.
HARD BEAN (HB) – A classification of coffee bean under the Guatemala Coffee grading system, the Hard Bean designation includes coffee beans grown between 4,000 feet and 5,000 feet above sea level. The general assumption is that the higher elevation bean is harder (more dense), and thus of a higher quality, or grade.
HARRAR COFFEE (Harar Coffee; Harer Coffee) – See Ethiopian Harrar Coffee.
HARRAR LONGBERRY COFFEE (Harar Longberry Coffee; Harer Longberry Coffee) – See Ethiopian Harrar Longberry Coffee.
HARRAR MOCHA COFFEE (Harar Mocha Coffee; Harer Mocha Coffee) – See Ethiopian Harrar Mocha Coffee.
HARRAR SHORTBERRY COFFEE (Harar Shortberry Coffee; Harer Shortberry Coffee) – See Ethiopian Harrar Shortberry Coffee.
HARSH – A caustic raspiness and/or astringent bitterness/acrid coffee flavor characteristic/taste sensation suggesting raw weeds. This is a fairly common quality in many Robusta coffees made from imperfect coffee beans.
Many people consider this harsh taste quality unpleasant and even offensive, though many others prefer a hint of it in their coffee.
HARVESTING COFFEE – See Harvesting Coffee.
HAWAII COFFEE (Hawaiian Coffee; Hawaiin Coffee) – See Hawaii Coffee.
HAWAII COFFEE ASSOCIATION – See Coffee Associations, Organizations, and Boards.
HAWAII KONA BLUE MOUNTAIN COFFEE (Hawaiian Kona Blue Mountain Coffee; Hawaii Blue Mountain Coffee; Hawaiian Blue Mountain Coffee) – The Blue Mountain coffee plant varietal (Coffea arabica var. blue mountain) is known to produce a full-bodied, sophisticated coffee that is silky smooth with a full body and very well-balanced.
The Blue Mountain varietal is known to exhibit a refined and classic mild taste with a slightly sweet flavor that is often very rich, even creamy, and with a complex taste that can be almost chocolaty.
A good Blue Mountain coffee displays a bright and vibrant yet smooth acidity, a clean taste with little to no bitterness, . The aroma is bold and sparkling with a profusion of floral notes and sweet herbal and nutty overtones.
While these general qualities are present in a fine Blue Mountain coffee, the quality of a particular coffee crop also depends upon where it is cultivated and if it is grown in the proper conditions and also harvested and processed properly.
Whether the Kona region can duplicate the fine Blue Mountain qualities in the unique growing region of Kona remains to be seen.
Also see Jamaica Blue Mountain Coffee.
HAWAII KONA COFFEE (Hawaiian Kona Coffee) – See Hawaii Kona Coffee.
The Kona Coffee Belt is a verdant area located in both the south and north Kona districts of the island along the cool and fertile western slopes of the volcanoes of Mauna Loa and Hualalai between the elevations of about 2,500 feet and 500 feet above sea level.
Measuring only about 30 miles long and only about one to two miles wide, the Kona Coffee Belt sits at elevations ranging from 2,500 feet down to about 500 feet above sea level. Only coffee grown in the Kona Coffee Belt is allowed to be called Kona coffee. Also see Hawaii Coffee; Hawaii Kona Coffee.
HAWAII KONA BLEND COFFEE (Hawaiian Kona Blend Coffee; Hawaiian Kona Coffee Blend; Hawaii Kona Coffee Blend) – See Hawaii Kona Blend Coffee.
HAWAII KONA EXTRA FANCY COFFEE (Hawaiian Kona Extra Fancy Coffee) – A grade of Type I Kona coffee beans. The primary grades of Type I Kona coffee beans are Prime (the lowest grade); Kona #1 (a mid-grade coffee bean often sold in bulk and used in many restaurants), Fancy (also a high grade), and Extra Fancy (the highest grade).
The grade Kona Extra Fancy describes Kona coffee beans that have the following specifications: will not go through a 19/64-inch round hole; 10 or fewer defects (full imperfections) in each pound of coffee beans; and 50 or fewer other grade of coffee beans per pound, with no more than 10% of the coffee’s weight comprised of undersize coffee beans, and a moisture content from 9% to 12%.
Type I Kona coffee beans have two seeds (half-beans) per coffee cherry (fruit) and they are oval (football-shaped) on one side and flat on the other side.
Type II Kona coffee beans have just one whole round bean per coffee cherry and known as Peaberry. Grades of Type II Kona coffee (peaberry Kona coffee) are Kona #1, Peaberry (the highest grade) and Kona Peaberry Prime (the lowest Type II grade).
HAWAII KONA FANCY COFFEE (Hawaiian Kona Fancy Coffee) – A grade of Type I Kona coffee beans with the following specifications: the coffee beans won’t go through a 18/64-inch round hole; have 16 or fewer defects (full imperfections) in each pound of coffee beans; and have 50 or fewer other grade of coffee beans per pound, with no more than 10% of the coffee’s weight consisting of undersize coffee beans and a moisture content from 9% to 12%.
HAWAII KONA PEABERRY COFFEE (Hawaiian Kona Peaberry Coffee; Hawaii Peaberry Kona Coffee) – See Hawaii Kona Peaberry Coffee.
HAWAII KONA PEABERRY PRIME COFFEE (Hawaiian Kona Peaberry Prime) – A grade of Type II Kona coffee beans. In the Kona coffee grading system, all Hawaii Kona Peaberry coffee beans are classified as Type II, which is then divided into the grades Kona #1, Peaberry (the highest grade) and Kona Peaberry Prime (the lowest Type II grade).
Valued for their robust flavor, Kona Peaberry are the rarest type of coffee beans and have a higher density than Type I Kona coffee beans. Coffee brewed from Kona Peaberry is known to have a smooth consistency and rich aroma.
From one to eight percent of any crop are peaberry coffee beans, and they are said to have a higher density as well as more concentrated, robust flavor, rich aroma and with a distinct acidity – brighter yet lighter – than non-peaberry coffee beans from the same crop. This may be due to the peaberry’s ability to get more nutrients from the coffee tree while developing within the coffee cherry.
HAWAII KONA NUMBER ONE COFFEE (Hawaiian Kona Number One Coffee) – A grade of Type I Kona coffee beans with the following specifications: the coffee beans won’t go through a 16/64-inch round hole; have 20 or fewer defects (full imperfections) in each pound of coffee beans; and have 50 or fewer other grade of beans per pound with less than 10% of the coffee’s weight being comprised of undersized coffee beans.
HAWAII KONA PEABERRY NUMBER ONE COFFEE (Hawaiian Kona Peaberry Number One Coffee) – A grade of Type II Kona coffee beans.
In the Kona coffee grading system, all Kona Peaberry coffee beans (which have one bean per coffee cherry) are classified as Type II, which is then divided into the grades Kona #1, Peaberry (the highest grade) and Kona Peaberry Prime (the lowest Type II grade).
Peaberry beans are valued for their robust flavor, and they are the rarest type of coffee beans, exhibiting a higher density than Type I Kona coffee beans. Coffee brewed from Kona Peaberry is known to have a smooth consistency and rich aroma.
From one to eight percent of any crop are peaberry coffee beans, and they are said to have a more concentrated, robust flavor, rich aroma and with a distinct acidity – brighter yet lighter – than non-peaberry coffee beans from the same coffee crop. This may be due to the peaberry’s ability to get more nutrients from the coffee tree while developing within the coffee cherry.
HAWAII KONA PRIME COFFEE (Hawaiian Kona Prime Coffee) – A grade of Type I Kona coffee beans with the following specifications: 25% by weight defective coffee beans with 5% or less by weight black beans or sour beans and a moisture content that is from 9% to 12%. Also see Hawaii Kona Coffee; Hawaii Coffee.
HAWAII KONA STYLE COFFEE (Hawaiian Kona Style Coffee) – A coffee blend that mixes Kona coffee beans with with lower quality coffee beans in an attempt to present the taste of Kona coffee but at a lower price to the consumer. Also see Hawaii Kona Coffee; Hawaii Coffee; Hawaii Kona Blend Coffee.
HAWAII KONA TYPICA COFFEE (Hawaiian Kona Typica Coffee) – Kona Typica is a coffee plant varietal (Coffea arabica var. typica) grown throughout the world including the Kona region on the Big Island of Hawaii, where it is the predominant varietal grown along with small amounts of the varietal Blue Mountain (Coffea arabica var. blue mountain).
Typica coffee plants and those varietals derived from Typica tend to grow in a conical shape with secondary varietals growing in a slight slant (about 60 degrees) off the vertical trunk. Typica is a relatively tall coffee plant, growing to about 3.75 meters in height, though usually trimmed to a lower height.
Typica is not a very productive varietal, averaging about 25% less productive than Bourbon (Coffea arabica var. bourbon), though it is generally agreed that the Typica varietal (Coffea arabica var. typica) produces one of the very finest cups of brewed coffee so farmers cultivate it despite the lower yield per plant.
All Typica plants today are virtually the same genetic variety as the coffee plants given to the French King Louis XIV in the 17th century (see World’s Best History of Coffee). Slight mutations have occurred to the coffee plant in the different locations where the varietal is grown, including the Kona region of Hawaii.
HAWAII STATE TRUTH IN LABELING BILL OF 2003 – Passed with the goal of helping coffee consumers discern if a coffee is 100% Kona coffee or instead a Kona blend coffee, the Hawaii State Truth in Labeling Law requires all Hawaii-grown coffee that is transferred from its place of origin to first receive State of Hawaii Certification by the Department of Agriculture, and all blends must include on their labeling specific disclosure of the percentage of Hawaii-grown coffee in the blend.
HB – See Hard Bean.
HEART (Of An Espresso Shot) – The components of a shot of espresso include the heart, body, and crema. The heart is at the very bottom of the espresso shot, and its color is usually a deep and rich brown.
The heart contains the bitterness that provides a balance to the sweetness of the espresso’s aroma. For tips on producing an excellent heart, see Pulling A Perfect Espresso Shot. See Espresso Drink Recipes.
HEAVY ROAST – This dark roast, which is also called Spanish Roast or Heavy Roast, is darker than an American Roast and almost as dark as Espresso Roast. The color of a French Roast may vary from dark brown to almost black with flavors that range from rich and bittersweet to burned. Also see Dark Roast; Roasting Coffee.
HEMILEIA VASTATRIX – Commonly known as coffee leaf rust, Hemileia vastatrix is a fungus that can devastate an Arabica coffee plantation. The first signs of the coffee disease are yellow-orange or yellowish spots on the underside of coffee plant leaves, leading to defoliation that reduces the plant’s fruit (cherry) growth.
Coffee rust began to show up in the Western hemisphere in the 1970s, and by the mid-1980s was found in all of the major coffee-growing countries in the West.
HERBAL – An herbaceous flavor and/or aroma/odor descriptor that suggests freshly mown lawn or alfalfa, perhaps the astringency of fresh green grass or herbs, dried herbs or grass, raw fresh vegetable leaf, green foliage, dried green beans or unripe fruit; a distinct herbal character due to a prominence of nitrogen compounds in the coffee beans as they mature in the coffee cherry (fruit).
This herbal taste quality is often detected in unripe coffee beans as well as some batches of freshly-harvested coffee such as early new crop coffees, and typically at the beginning of the coffee harvesting season. The herbal quality is often attributed to insufficient roasting time and roasting heat not allowing the sugar carbon compounds in the coffee beans to develop. Also called Grassy; Green.
HEREDIA COFFEE (Herediá Coffee) – Heredia is a coffee growing region in Costa Rica which produces some of the country’s most distinguished coffees known for their full body as well as their rich, robust flavor and acidity. Heredia is a market name. Also see Costa Rica Coffee.
HEREDID COFFEE – One of the most distinguished Costa Rican Coffees.
HIDEY – A leather-like or tallowy odor taint caused by excessive heat during drying (e.g., in a mechanical dryer) causing a breakdown in the fats of the coffee beans.
HIGH GROWN COFFEE (High-Grown Coffee) – Refers to coffee beans that were grown at high elevations (typically from 4,000 feet to 6,000 feet above sea level), though some use this designation for coffees grown at elevations exceeding 2,000 feet or 3,000 feet above sea level.
HIGHLAND HUEHUETENANGO COFFEE – The Highland Huehuetenango coffee growing region is located near Mexico’s border in Guatemala at elevations between 5,000 feet and 6,000 feet above sea level in the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, a 400-kilometer mountain range with peaks rising to 3,828 meters above sea level – these mountains cross the southern region of Huehuetenango.
The average temperature of the Highland Huehuetenango coffee growing region is about 23 degrees Celsius (73 degrees Fahrenheit) with an average annual rainfall of about 1,800 mm annually and humidity around 75%. The Huehuetenango coffee cherry are harvested from January through April.
Coffee plant varietals grown in the highland Huehuetenango region include Bourbon (Coffea arabica var. bourbon), Caturra (Coffea arabica var. caturra), and Catuai (Coffea arabica var. catuai). Highland Huehuetenango coffee plants are protected from frost by the dry, hot winds of Mexico’s Tehuantepec plain.
HIGH MOUNTAIN SUPREME COFFEE – A wet processed (washed) coffee grown in Jamaica’s Blue Mountains of Jamaica High Mountain Supreme® is highly respected yet generally considered to be of a lower quality than Jamaica Blue Mountain Coffee, which is consistently ranked among the world’s finest gourmet coffees.
Jamaica’s Blue Mountain region is north of Kingston and south of Port Maria, with Jamaica Blue Mountain coffee-growing estates located at elevations between 3,000 feet (914 meters) and and 5,500 feet (1,676 meters), while Jamaica’s lesser coffees are grown at lower elevations – Jamaica High Mountain between 1,500 and 3,000 feet and Jamaica Supreme/Jamaica Low Mountain grown below 1,500 feet
HIGH ROAST – See Medium-Dark Roast.
HIGH YIELD BREWING (High-Yield Brewing) – A brewing method which utilizes a high level of extraction to remove between 22 percent and 25 percent of all of the roasted, ground coffee’s soluble materials.
HILLS BROTHERS COFFEE – See coffee companies.
HISTORY OF COFFEE – See World’s Best History of Coffee.
HOME BARISTA – See coffee websites.
HOME ESPRESSO MACHINE (Home Espresso Maker; Home Coffee Espresso Maker) – See Home Espresso Machines.
HOMEROASTER – See coffee websites.
HOMEROASTERS.ORG – See coffee websites.
HOME ROASTING (Home Coffee Roasting) – See Home Roasting.
HONDURAS COFFEE (Honduran Coffee) – See Honduras Coffee.
HOSHIDANA – Drying deck (floor/platform/rack) which is common on Hawaii Kona Coffee farms and is used to dry green coffee beans after exposing them to sunlight, usually during the early part of the day. The coffee beans are raked regularly so they dry evenly.
A hoshidana also has a rolling roof which is closed over the coffee beans in the afternoon and evenings to protect the coffee beans from the rain.
HOUSE BLEND – A particular coffee blend as chosen by an establishment, varying widely with personal preference.
HUEHUETENANGO COFFEE – See Guatemala Huehuetenango Coffee.
HULLING – The mechanical removal of the wet processed coffee bean’s parchment and silverskin. If the coffee has been dry processed, hulling refers to the simultaneous removal of the coffee bean’s husk, parchment, and silverskin.
HUSK – The dried pulp covering a coffee bean before husking.
HUSKING – Removing the dried pulp from dry processed (natural) coffee beans.
HYBRID – A cross between two genetically dissimilar cultivars (e.g., coffee plant varietals), usually to produce an offspring with desirable characteristics that are either not found, or only inconsistently found, in the individual parent plants.
HYBRIDO DE TIMOR COFFEE (Hibrido De Timor Coffee) – American name for Timor coffee, an interspecific hybrid of Robusta (Coffea canephora var. robusta) and Coffea arabica. Hybrido de Timor was first discovered in the 1940s on the island of Timor in Indonesia. Timor coffee plants began to be cultivated due to their strong resistance to coffee leaf rust, a disease that afflicts most coffee plant species.
The Hybrido de Timor varietal has 44 chromosomes and resembles the Arabica coffee plant. The coffee beans are respected for their vibrant yet low-toned acidity and full body though if poorly processed there may be an unpleasant hardness or musty taste. Also called Bor Bor Coffee; Tim Tim Coffee; Hybrido de Timor.
HYDRATION – The process of forming a compound by combining, in a specific molecular ratio, coffee and another substance.
HYDROLYZED – A conventional instant coffee treatment that produces an undesirable level of acidity commonly associated with over-extraction. Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction that split molecules of water (H2O) into H+ (hydrogen cations).
HYDROMETER – A scientific device used to determine the amount of soluble solids in a particular coffee. A hydrometer measures the coffee’s increased specific gravity – its density relative to water – which increases as coffee flavoring materials become present in the water during brewing.
HYPER ESPRESSO CAPSULES – The most recent innovation of the Illy company, Hyper Espresso Capsules are designed to work with Illy’s Francis Francis Hyper Espresso machine that facilitates a two-phase espresso extraction process. According to Illy, this creates “an extraordinarily smooth, full-bodied and intensely aromatic coffee with long-lasting crema.”