WALLENFORD ESTATE/WALLENFORD MILL (Wallenford Coffee Estate; Wallenford Coffee Mill) – One of the most renowned Jamaica Blue Mountain estates which also include Mavis Bank, Old Tavern, Moy Hall, and Silver Hill.
Only estates with the registered right and legal permission to call their coffee Jamaica Blue Mountain™ coffee are allowed to do so.
The highest quality Jamaica Blue Mountain Coffee was once consistently provided by the Wallenford Estate. Today their prestige is not as exclusive, and the name Wallenford Estate may be given to any Blue Mountain coffee that is processed at the Wallenford Mill.
WASHED METHOD PROCESSING (Washed-Method Processing; Washed Coffee) – See Wet Processing.
WATER FILTRATION – The process of removing chemicals and other impurities from water through a process of filtration. This is often done by passing the water through a bed of activated carbon.
WATER HARDNESS – The typical amount of dissolved minerals in water. Most municipalities supply water that ranges from 50 parts per million to 800 parts per million.
WATER METHOD OF DECAFFEINATION (Water Process Of Decaffeination; Water Processed Decaffeination) – A decaffeination process that utilizes hot water to extract caffeine from green coffee beans (milled but not yet roasted). Chemical compounds are then used to extract the caffeine from the extract.
The coffee beans are first steamed or soaked for several hours in hot (nearly boiling) water. Slowly the solution surrounding the coffee beans draws the caffeine out of the coffee beans, and also draws out the coffee’s flavor elements and oils, which are then removed from the liquid which contains caffeine as well as coffee flavor compounds.
Next chemicals are used to extract the caffeine from the solution. The chemical used for this is usually either methylene chloride or ethyl acetate – a longer time is required if ethyl acetate is used, though both serve well to absorb the caffeine.
The caffeine is then separated from the organic solvent through the process of evaporation by heating the mixture. The same water is then used again (reunited with the beans) in the two-step process, and with the same batch of green coffee beans, so they can regain the coffee flavor elements and essential oils. The solvent itself never actually contacts or touches the coffee beans.
After several cycles of this process an equilibrium is reached, at which time the coffee beans and water have a similar composition with the exception of the caffeine. From this point on only the caffeine is removed from the coffee beans, so the coffee itself does not lose any flavor or strength.
Since water is used at the beginning of this process, the coffee beans produced by the Indirect Method (indirect contact method; water process) of decaffeinating coffee are sometimes called Water Processed coffee beans, though in fact chemicals are used in this process.
When ethyl acetate is used, this method is sometimes referred to as a “natural process” because ethyl acetate is a chemical compound found naturally in many fruits. Also see Decaffeinated Coffee.
WATER-ONLY PROCESS OF DECAFFEINATION (Water Only Decaffeination Process; Water-Only Process; Water Only Process) – See Decaffeination.
WATER QUALITY – A qualitative determination based upon the water’s level of dissolved oxygen and mineral hardness, and also the absence of chemical contamination.
WATER RESERVOIR – A built in tank on some espresso machines (e.g., most home espresso machines and some prosumer espresso machines) and also on most coffee machines (e.g., drip-filter coffee machines) which holds the water that is then used to brew the espresso or the coffee.
On espresso machines with a reservoir the water is also used to supply the steam that emits from the steam wand which is used to aerate milk to create frothed milk for espresso-based specialty coffee drinks (espresso drinks). Also see Plumbed-In.
WATER SOFTENING – Substituting sodium ions for dissolved mineral ions (hardness) in water.
WELL-BALANCED (Well-Balanced) – Describes a coffee with pleasant taste and aroma characteristics, and enough complexity to be interesting, yet with no one element or quality dominating (overpowering, overshadowing or overwhelming) any other aroma/flavor characteristic – the coffee’s flavor will not localize at any particular point on the palate, thus it is not imbalanced toward one particular direction, and certainly not in the direction of an undesirable taste characteristic (e.g. a taste fault/flavor defect).
A well-balanced coffee that is full-bodied may also be described as mellow. An example of this balanced quality is found in fine Yemen Coffees, which can be compared in many ways to Ethiopian Harrar coffee, yet the Yemen coffee is more balanced, possessing all of the basic taste characteristics (body, aroma, flavor, acidity, bitterness, sweetness, aftertaste) of a premium coffee and to just the right extent.
WET CAPPUCCINO – See Espresso Drink Recipes.
WET PROCESSING (Wet-Processing Method; Wet Processing Method; Wet-Method Processing; Wet Method Processing) – See Wet Processing.
WHEEL BURR GRINDERS – See Wheel Burr Grinders.
WHITE SCALE DISEASE – A coffee disease that affects coffee plants. White Scale caused great damage to the Hawaii Kona Coffee crop in the 1870s. Two decades later the Australian Ladybird beetle was introduced to Hawaii in order to control the coffee disease.
WINEY (Winy; Wine-Like) – A slight hint of a flavor/taste sensation suggesting fine red wine; a mature and fruity essence that is created by the contrast between the coffee’s fruit-like acidity and smooth body.
A winey flavor quality is typical of many premium Kenyan coffees. Also exhibiting this attribute are many of the gourmet Ethiopian Harrar coffees which are known for their pleasantly acidic and snappy taste, and also the fine coffees of Sumatra which are known for their syrupy body.
A winey quality, which is generally desirable, should not be confused with a fermented or sour flavor.
WOODY – A desirable coffee flavor characteristic/taste sensation and/or aroma sensation/aroma descriptor; perhaps a floral aroma. The woody quality is reminiscent of oak, the bark of a tree, or dry wood and is present in some premium gourmet coffees.
WORLD FAIR TRADE ORGANIZATION (WFTO) – See Organic and Fair Trade Organizations.
WORLDSHOPS – See Organic and Fair Trade Organizations.