Characteristics of Rwanda Coffee
A fine Rwanda coffee offers a silky, creamy body along with the floral notes of Ethiopian Yirgacheffe Coffee and the acidity of a Kenya coffee. The aroma may provide hints of lemon and orange blossom with floral notes complementing the sweet citrus qualities with hints of caramel in the aftertaste.
The sweet flavors of a good Rwandan coffee are suggestive of caramelized cane sugar along with spice notes of clove, cinnamon and allspice and rose floral aromas. The buttery creaminess of the body carries into the aftertaste.
History of Rwanda Coffee
German missionaries were the first to introduce coffee to Rwanda in 1904. Beginning around 1930 coffee production in Rwanda increased though it was mostly low-grade, high volume coffee cultivation as dictated by the government creating one of the country’s few significant cash crops.
Today Rwanda is Africa’s ninth largest Arabica coffee producer with about 450,000 small farms which average less than one hectare in size (about 165 coffee trees per coffee farmer) totaling about 28,000 hectares in coffee cultivation.
Rwandan Coffee Plant Varietals
About 95% of Rwanda’s coffee plants are the high quality Arabica varietal Bourbon Also cultivated are relatively small amounts of the Catuai and Caturra varietals. One of the varietals cultivated in Rwanda is Coffea arabica var. mayaguez, a cultivar of Bourbon (Coffea arabica var. bourbon).
Most of the coffee in Rwanda is grown at elevations ranging from 1,200 to 1,800 meters above sea level. The Rwanda coffee plants flower in September in October and the coffee cherry are harvested from March to July.
Rwanda’s coffee market has been plagued in the past by tumultuous political events, war and genocide causing many deaths. The future of Rwanda’s coffee market depends upon the political stability of the region.
Rwanda Coffee Political and Transportation Issues
Historically Rwanda’s coffee crops have been shipped across Uganda into Kenya and from there were shipped mostly to the European market. This extensive journey sometimes led to a degradation of the quality of the coffee and also made the crop more vulnerable to the current political situation.
Due to the difficulties getting the Rwanda coffee crop to market many farmers were discouraged from significant production of high quality coffee. An increasing ability of rural farmers to process their coffee and get it to market bodes well for the future of Rwanda coffee farming.
Virtually all of Rwanda’s coffee is grown in the country’s central region near Kigali (the capital) and in western Rwanda, while the eastern region of the country is largely reserved as a national park where no coffee growing occurs.
Rwanda Coffee and Espresso Brewing Tips
For tips on brewing the perfect cup of Rwanda coffee see the Espresso Coffee Guide’s section on Coffee Brewing.
For easy to follow instructions on how to make great Rwanda espresso drinks see Espresso Drink Recipes and the How to make Lattes and Cappuccinos. Also provided are tips on Pulling A Perfect Espresso Shot.
For the history of espresso and coffee see World’s Best History of Coffee, and for a complete list of coffee terminology with detailed definitions see the Espresso Coffee Guide’s Coffee and Espresso Glossary.