Where Does the Coffee Bean Come From?
A coffee bean comes from the center of the coffee plant's cherry (fruit), and is the seed of the plant.
Beneath the coffee cherry's outer skin is the fruity pulp, beneath which is the silverskin, a fine, extremely thin layer of skin that surrounds and adheres tightly to the coffee bean.
Coffee Harvesting and Processing - Dry and Wet Processing
Wet processing is a method of getting the parchment off by first removing the pulp from the coffee bean in the process called pulping. Then the mucilage is removed through fermentation and finally the beans are dried, either in the sunlight or using forced-air drying.
Green Coffee Beans
Peaberry Coffee Beans
Valued for their robust flavor, peaberry are the rarest type of coffee beans and have a higher density than non-peaberry coffee beans because they're able to absorb all nutrients within the coffee cherry. Coffee brewed from peaberry is known to have a smooth consistency and rich aroma, but is more difficult to roast because the larger size means less even heat distribution.
Coffee Bean Varietals
Coffee plant varieties are derived either through natural selection or through selective breeding for specific genetic traits, resulting in distinct genetic subspecies of the main coffee species (e.g., Arabica, Robusta, Canephora, and Liberica).
Different varietals (cultivars) have distinct flavors, body (mouthfeel), and other basic coffee characteristics (e.g., acidity, sweetness/bitterness, and aftertaste/finish) as well as varying amounts of caffeine.
Variations in cultivars likely reflect the particular region where the coffee was grown, including its climate, soil, and other regional factors (e.g. average amount of sunlight; altitude, etc.), and also how the coffee was harvested and processed, producing distinctive characteristics.
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